Leadership and Organizational Change
Leadership is an integral element of any society. Within a group of
After the methodology and literature
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This study is based on a review of ten articles focused on various topics in the field of organizational change and leadership. All articles are based on research conducted either by the authors
Oreg & Berson (2011) conducted a multilevel analysis of data from 75 Israeli schools, which included their principals (75) and teachers (586). While the principals had to report their demographics,
In order to see the role of leader in the psychological state of employees in
Taormina (2008) used a questionnaire on 166 employees from various organizations. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the companies’ cultures, as well as their leadership styles and leaders themselves. In this
Along with quantitative studies, the
Review of literature Articles and theories.
Ten articles that were studied in order to comprise this research focus on three main spheres: organizational change, management of organizations, and leadership. Only by understanding the three sides of the issue it is possible to create a more or less concise picture of the role of leadership in the process of organizational change.
Out of all the articles studied for this research only around a half was people-oriented, and only one had a particular focus on the moods and feelings of employees in
Throughout time various theories on leadership have been developed by philosophers, social
In the 2nd part of the 20th
A major breakthrough in the development of leadership theories was made in the 1950s with the two-dimensional model of leadership, which defined people-oriented and task-oriented models of a leader’s behavior (Taormina 2008). Secondly, there is a distinction between two types of leadership, which dates back to the 1980s, which defines the difference between a leader and a manager. These two types of leadership have various names, with the most common one used in the theory of change management being transactional (manager) and transformational (leader) types of leadership.
Change management and Leadership
Change is inevitable and plentiful in organizations both in the private and public sectors. At the same time, it is very hard to predict and control change due to a vast variety of variables that are altered simultaneously (Burke & Litwin 1992). Therefore, despite a constant need for innovations and adjustments to the new requirements of the environment, not all the changes happening in organizations are successful (Oreg & Berson 2011). There are various reasons that lead to change in organizations. For example, according to Burke & Litwin (1992), all changes in organizations are initiated by external forces and influences. The environments in which organizations exist constantly change which makes the structures adapt to the restyled conditions.
The causal model makes a clear distinction between leadership and management, which will be further explored in this study. According to this model, there are five primary elements that influence organizational climate: organization’s mission, structure, managerial practice under the influence of organizational culture,
Leadership in Change
Leadership is a universal phenomenon, which can be seen in any country of the world and in any society (Bass 1997). While having almost ultimate authority, leaders are able to
The role of
The decisions made by a leader in
All the actions and choices made by a leader shape not only his/her own course and the course of the organization, but they also influence the beliefs and attitudes of the followers. Therefore, the organization culture created by the leadership can either stimulate the change or, on the contrary, make it less attractive for the members of the group. Oreg & Berson (2011) provide an example of individuals, who value stability and thus will see the change as
At the same time, while the organization is influenced by a leader, the leadership styles are influenced by the organizations as well. According to Bass (1997), leadership is affected by the culture of the organization in which it occurs. Higgins (2005) notes that it is essential to align leadership style with the company’s culture.
In times of
Transactional and Transformational leadership
The two types of leadership that are important in the process of organizational change are transformational and transactional leaderships. Some studies show that the two types of leadership are complementary, while others state that transactional leadership is essential in the process of maintaining an organization and transactional should be more popular in times of change (Leithwood & Poplin1992). The main difference between the two types of leadership is that while transactional leader reinforces his or her followers, transformational one stimulates them to go beyond one’s boundaries and self-interests for the common interest of the group (Bass 1997). While transactional leader works within the limitations of an organization, transformational one changes the organization (Bass 1997).
Transformational leadership can be sometimes mixed with change leadership, but these are two different notions. If change leadership has a primary focus on the current state and the ways in which a leader is coping with this change, transformational one works
It is essential to remember that although transactional/transformational paradigm is very popular in the United States, cross-cultural differences play a very important role in the perception of these two types of leadership. This might be an essential point as the majority of all the theories and methods of this paradigm were created in the United States (Bass 1997). The peculiar characteristic of the USA is its’ individualistic culture, thus this paradigm might not be true for the collectivistic states. The research of Bass (1997) shows that in collectivistic countries of East Asia transformational
In the study of leadership in the process of
This study has presented a short review of managerial structures, as well as in-depth analysis of leadership in times of change, with a special focus on two types of leadership – transformational and transactional. The main aim of this research was to show the significant role of a leader in the process of organizational management in times of change.
The author has tried to show the significant place of a leader by showing the way in which a leader is connected to employees by not only managing
In times of
The study of the role of leadership in the process of change requires a deep approach and solid professional knowledge in the following spheres: management of organizations; change management; leadership types; group dynamics, and even psychology. Therefore, all further studies require specialists in all the mentioned spheres. Only in this
The reviewed literature shows that
In terms of leadership qualities in times of change, the most important ones are unified under the general definition of a transformational leader. This type of leader not only supports employees and stimulates them, but also empathizes, which provides emotional support to employees and thus makes the process of change smooth and more comfortable. Moreover, the type of organizational culture, which is established by a leader, has a great influence on the employees’ perception of change.
- Arnold KA, Turner N, Barling J,
KellowayKE, & McKee MC 2007, ‘Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: the mediating role of meaningful work.’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12 (3), pp. 193-203.
- Bass, BM 1997, ‘Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?’, American Psychologist, 52 (2), pp. 130-139.
- Burke, WW & Litwin, GH 1992, 'A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change', Journal of Change Management, 18(3), pp.523-45.
- Herold DM, Fedor DB, Caldwell S & Liu Y 2008, ‘The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees’ commitment to a change: a multilevel study.’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 (2), pp. 346-357.
- Higgins JM 2005, ‘The Eights ‘S’s of successful strategy execution.’, Journal of Change Management, 5 (1), pp. 3-13.
- Leithwood KA and Poplin MS 1992, The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 49(5), pp. 8-12.
- Oreg S and Berson Y 2011, ‘Leadership and employees’ reactions to change: the role of leaders’ personal attributes and transformational leadership style.’, Personnel Psychology, 64, pp. 627-659.
- Rafferty AE and Griffin MA 2006, ‘Perceptions of organizational change: a stress and coping perspective.’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 1154-1162.
- Taormina, RJ 2007, ‘Interrelating leadership behaviors, organizational socialization, and organizational culture.’, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29 (1), pp. 85-102.
- Turner JR and Muller R 2005, ‘The project manager’s leadership style as a success factor on projects: a literature review.’, Project Management Journal, 36 (1), pp. 49-61.
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